How do you know if you have the mumps?

Children
Mump disease have been reported all countries in the world, as well as in American children exposed to the risk of mumps may still possible. Mumps is still endemic in many countries in the world, while the MMR vaccine is used only 57% of the countries that are members of the World Health Organization, particularly in the developed countries. In England and Wales, a mumps epidemic that started in 2005, has reported 56 390 cases of death.

Mumps disease or in the world of medicine known as parotitis is an infectious disease where someone is infected by a virus (paramyxovirus) which has attacked the salivary glands (parotid glands) in between the ear and jaw, causing swelling of the upper neck or cheek bottom.

Mumps spread throughout the world and can occur in endemic or epidemic, This disorder tends to strike children aged 2-14 years. A large increase in cases is usually found on transmission in the school premises. In adults, the infection can attack the testes (testicles), central nervous system, pancreas, prostate, breast and other organs

As for those who suffer or are at greater risk for contracting this disease are those who use or consume certain drugs to suppress the thyroid gland hormones and their Iodine deficiency in the body. Deaths due to mumps rarely reported. Most of the fatal cases actually experienced at the age of 19 years.

Causes and Transmission

The disease is caused by a virus Mumps is a virus-type RNA virus that is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus paramyxovirus. There are two surface glycoprotein consisting of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and the fusion protein. Mumps virus is sensitive to heat and ultraviolet rays.

Disease Mumps (Mumps or parotitis) spread of the virus can be transmitted through direct contact, spray saliva, vomit material, possibly with urine. The virus can be found in the urine from the first day until the fourteenth day after the enlargement of the gland.

Mumps disease is extremely rare in children aged less than 2 years, it is because generally they still have or be protected by good anti-bodies. Someone who had suffered from mumps, then he will have life-long immunity.

People with mumps are still dintakan can be a source of transmission for 9 days since the complaint was found swollen. We recommend that during this period the patient is recommended not to go to school or do an activity in a crowd because it will be a source of infection and spread of disease of children in the vicinity.

Signs and symptoms

Not all people infected by the virus paramyxovirus have complaints, even about 30-40% of patients do not show signs of illness (subclinical). However, they are the same as other patients who have complaints, which can be a source of transmission of the disease.

Incubation period (the incubation period) Mumps disease around 12-24 days with an average of 17-18 days. The signs and symptoms of infection and the development of the shoot can be described as follows:

In the initial stage (1-2 days) Mumps sufferers experience symptoms: fever (body temperature 38.5 - 40 degrees Celsius), headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, jaw pain when chewing the back and is sometimes accompanied by a stiff jaw (difficulty opening the mouth ). Sometimes accompanied by severe ear pain in the first 24 hours.

Further swelling of glands below the ear (parotid) preceded by swelling of one side of the gland and then the gland swelling. Approximately 70-80% swelling of glands on both sides.
Swelling usually lasts about 3-5 days and then gradually deflate and is accompanied by fever improved.
Sometimes swelling of the salivary glands under the jaw (submandibular), submaxillary glands under the tongue (sublingual) and edema and erythematous at the orifice of the duct. In the male puberty adalanya swelling of the testicles (testicular) for dissemination through the bloodstream.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is performed only clinically. The diagnosis will be carried out if there are symptoms of mumps infection epidemic on physical examination, including a description of the contact with someone with mumps (mumps or parotitis) 2-3 weeks previously. In addition it is the act of checking laboratory results of urine and blood.

Laboratory examination

Considering only the clinical diagnosis, the laboratory examination is not very helpful. Laboratory tests obtained leucopenia with relative limfosiotsis, also found increased levels of serum amylase which peaked after one week and then returned to normal within two weeks.

If the patient did not show any swelling of glands below the ears, but the signs and symptoms leading to diagnosis of mumps so dubious. Your doctor will give you recommendations further tests such as blood serum. At less there are 3 test serum (serologic) to prove specific mumps antibodies: antibodies Complement fixation (CF), Hemagglutination inhibitor antibodies (HI), virus neutralizing antibodies (NT).

complication

Almost all children suffering from mumps will recover fully without complications, but sometimes the symptoms worsened again after about 2 weeks. Things like this can cause complications, where the virus can invade organs other than the salivary glands. This might occur especially if the infection occurs after puberty.


Complications that can occur is

Orchitis; inflammation of one or both testicles reported to occur in 10-20% penerita .. Once cured, the affected testicle may be shrinking. Rarely, testicular permanent damage resulting in infertility.
Ovoritis: inflammation of one or both ovaries transparent. Arising mild abdominal pain and rarely causes sterility.

Encephalitis or meningitis: inflammation of the brain or the lining of the brain. Meningitis is more common than encephalitis. Symptoms include headache, stiff neck, drowsiness, coma or convulsions. 5-10% of patients with meningitis and most will recover fully.

Symptoms that may occur are headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and meningismus. Marked changes in awareness or consciousness disorders. Pleocytosis that occurs in the bone marrow fluid. In clinically diagnosed meningoencephalitis, which is an overview CSF mononuclear pleocytosis happens, gukosa not normal and hypoglycorrhachia.

Mumps virus may be isolated from bone marrow fluid early in the disease. Mumps meningoencephalitis brought a good prognosis and is usually associated with good recovery. But about 1 in 400-6000 patients experiencing enserfalitis likely to suffer brain damage or permanent nerve, such as deafness or paralysis of facial muscles.

Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas, may occur at the end of the first week. Patients with nausea and vomiting accompanied by abdominal pain. These symptoms will disappear within 1 week and patients will recover completely.

Nephritis, or kidney inflammation can cause sufferers secrete thick urine in significant amounts
Joint inflammation can cause pain in one or more joints.
transient myelitis
Polineuritis
Infection of the heart muscle or myocarditis
Thyroid gland infection
thrombocytopenia purpura
Mastitis, or inflammation of the breast
Pneumonia or lung infection have also been reported as a complication in patients with mumps.
Disorders ear and sensorineural hearing lossComplications that can occur is

Orchitis; inflammation of one or both testicles reported to occur in 10-20% penerita .. Once cured, the affected testicle may be shrinking. Rarely, testicular permanent damage resulting in infertility.
Ovoritis: inflammation of one or both ovaries transparent. Arising mild abdominal pain and rarely causes sterility.

Encephalitis or meningitis: inflammation of the brain or the lining of the brain. Meningitis is more common than encephalitis. Symptoms include headache, stiff neck, drowsiness, coma or convulsions. 5-10% of patients with meningitis and most will recover fully. Symptoms that may occur are headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, and meningismus. Marked changes in awareness or consciousness disorders.

Pleocytosis that occurs in the bone marrow fluid. In clinically diagnosed meningoencephalitis, which is an overview CSF mononuclear pleocytosis happens, gukosa not normal and hypoglycorrhachia. Mumps virus may be isolated from bone marrow fluid early in the disease.

Mumps meningoencephalitis brought a good prognosis and is usually associated with good recovery. But about 1 in 400-6000 patients experiencing enserfalitis likely to suffer brain damage or permanent nerve, such as deafness or paralysis of facial muscles.

Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas, may occur at the end of the first week. Patients with nausea and vomiting accompanied by abdominal pain. These symptoms will disappear within 1 week and patients will recover completely.

Nephritis, or kidney inflammation can cause sufferers secrete thick urine in significant amounts
Joint inflammation can cause pain in one or more joints.
transient myelitis
Polineuritis
Infection of the heart muscle or myocarditis
Thyroid gland infection
thrombocytopenia purpura
Mastitis, or inflammation of the breast
Pneumonia or lung infection have also been reported as a complication in patients with mumps.
Disorders ear and sensorineural hearing loss

Treatment


Treatment aims to reduce complaints (symptomatic) and rest for people with heat and glands (parotid) swell. Can use heat and pain relief medication (antipyretics and analgesics) eg Paracetamol and the like, Aspirin should not be given to children because of the risk of Reye's syndrome (could be due to the effect of aspirin in children).

In patients who experience swelling of the testicles, the patient should undergo bedrest rest in bed. The pain can be reduced by ice compress on the swollen testicle area.
Patients who experienced a virus attack apada organ pancreas (pancreatitis), which cause symptoms of nausea and vomiting should be given fluids intravenously.

Corticosteroids for 2-4 days and 20 ml of convalescent gammaglobulin is expected to prevent the occurrence of orchitis. Against the virus itself can not be influenced by anti-microbial, so treatment is only oriented to relieve symptoms until the patient returned either by itself.

Mumps actually classified as "self-limiting disease" (disease that heal itself without treatment). People with mumps should avoid foods or beverages that are acidic so that the pain does not get worse, given a liquid diet and soft.
Award immunomodulatory there has been no research report menjunjukkan effectiveness

Prevention


Vaccination MMR (mumps, morbili, rubella) to prevent the mumps part of routine immunization in childhood, is given by injection at the age of 15 months. MMR immunization may also be given to adolescents and adults who have not had Mumps. Immunization does not cause thermal effects or other symptoms. MMR immunization is used in the United States since 1967.

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends its use for children, youth, teens, and adults. At that time, the community considers the prevention of goiter is not a priritas of primary prevention in public health and ACIP stated MMR immunization is a public health program that is less effectiveness.

However, in 1972, ACIP issued a strong recommendation to show that the MMR immunization is a very important program. At that time, ACIP recommends routine vaccination for all children aged 12 years or more.

In 1980, it has been declared as a strong recommendation for vaccination in children, adolescents and adults who are vulnerable. After the MMR vaccination and recommendations enactment of more comprehensive legislation on the state to require the vaccination should be recommended when the child starts school.

However, during 1986 and 1987, a major outbreak occurred among a cohort group underimmunized or persons born during 1967-1977, resulting in a change in the peak incidence of 5-9 years old shift at the age of 10-19 years. In 1989, ACIP recommended measles and MMR vaccine in children aged 4-6 years upon entry into kindergarten or first grade.

Comments